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Beans Farming in Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2021)

Beans Farming in Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2021)

 

 

Beans farming is very lucrative in Nigeria as beans is the third most consumed food. It can be used in making different delicacies like moi moi, beans cake (akara), beans soup and many more. You are sure of creating wealth by going into this business as it is highly in demand.Here is a guide on how to start this business.

Beans are legume and the third most consumed staple food in Nigeria right after Rice and Garri. This is a pointer to the relatively high and constant demand for beans as it is one of the most consistent, affordable and readily available source of protein for families and it is consumed by all Nigerian families. It can be used for preparing different delicacies. Processed beans can also be dried and preserved for long periods.

A 100kg bag of beans is currently sold for N27,000 and there is even time of the year the price used to go as high as N36,000, like when the new beans is yet to come out. Let’s assume you have 100 bags of beans right now and sell for N27,000. You would be making N27,000 x 100 = N2,700,000

You can start by planting crops that you and your immediate family can feed on, farming is not restricted for commercial purposes.
As a major source of protein, vitamin B and folic acid, Beans is absolutely important to the body. The legume also contains minerals like iron, selenium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and a very rich source of fibre.

It can be made into the following forms:

Akara: This is a famous Nigerian street food consumed in large quantities either as breakfast or dinner on a daily basis. There is almost no Nigerian street where you won’t find Akara being fried in a corner except for restricted areas like high brow residential estates and offices.

Also known as bean balls, it is made by washing off the skin and coats of the bean seeds and blending with aid of a blending machine into a smooth paste which is infused with seasoning and fried in either groundnut or palm oil till it turns brown.

Moi-moi: this is made from a similar process mentioned above. The bean seeds are thoroughly washed and blended into a smooth paste which is infused with desired seasoning and cooking oil of choice. It is then wrapped in leaves commonly known as moi-moi leaves, foil paper, tins or small transparent polythene bags and cooked till done.

Rice and Beans: This is another bean delicacy where beans is combined with rice in a jollof form or in plain form to be eaten with stew.

Beans Porridge: The beans is cooked alone in porridge form. It can be eaten with sweet corn, plantain, yam, bread, garri, sweet or Irish potato.

Beans Farming in Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2021)

Things You Need To Start Beans Farming

1. Select a Good Site

The first step into starting a beans farm is to choose a suitable location for it. Normally, the south eastern and western part of the country are very good for beans farming business. The pH level of soil favorable to beans farming is 6-7. This means the soil pH level should be neutral. preparing the land by ploughing would be a good idea. However, the soil should be well drained as beans cannot survive in a waterlogged area.To let the legume germinate well, you must expose the soil used in planting beans to sunlight. Mind you that a damp soil, will weaken the seed and might cause stunted growth.

Climbing types will yield well in areas of high rainfall while the dwarf types are more sensitive to high soil moisture levels. Suitable soil types range is from light to moderately heavy and to peaty with organic matter soils that is near neutral pH and good drainage. Common bean is sensitive to salt, you must avoid salty area.

Having found the suitable land for your plantation, next is to get it prepared in readiness for plating. Clear the land properly and burn the grass, then use tractor cultivator to Plows the oil and loosen the earth. Some people do plan just after clearing but properly cleared land do better than the just cleared and planted.

2. Select the Best Seeds

The type of beans that does well in Nigeria are: The White Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) and The Red Beans. Select the best type and do the seed selection too. It is not just enough to select the right type, you need to manually do the seed selection to ensure you are planting only the best and the most health seeds.
If you have done your research of the different types of beans grown in Nigeria, it would be better you select the healthy seeds for planting. Damaged seeds won’t yield you a good return on investment. .

3. Planting

Beans can be planted in either rows or blocks, with 6 inches between each seed. Plant the seeds 2 inches deep into the soil and cover it with the soft surface soil. If possible, let the seed eyes face the ground.

Under normal circumstances and ideal conditions, bean would begin to sprout with 6 days of planting and grow into a good sprout within two weeks. Normally, the best month to plant beans is December. This has always been a favorable planting season. But before you start, loose the soil and plough it. After that, you can then plant the seed. As earlier said, the fertility of the soil matters if you want to harvest beans in excess quantity. The only time you should apply fertilizer is if the fertility of the soil is low.

Here is how to plant the beans seeds:

The beans should be planted with the eye downwards the soil. Give about 4 to 6 inch gap apart. Watering the soil is also important. This should be done regularly until the bean seeds begin sprouting out.

During the process of watering the plant, ensure the water don’t touch the leaves, this will avoid mould growth. We often advice to plant the beans close to an onions plant. Every four years, develop the practice of planting the seeds at exact spot more than once.

4. Maintenance

After planting, take care of your farm by weeding when necessary to watch out for pest and diseases and control them immediately to avoid spread. Weeding is important to produce healthy seedlings. While uprooting the weeds be careful to avoid contact with the roots of the bean plant.
Use a light hand when applying high nitrogen fertilizer, or you will get lush very beautiful plants but with few beans. So, you need to be moderate in applying fertilizer.

Weeding is essential to the well being of the plant. Be very diligent while weeding and use shallow cultivation to avoid disturbing the roots.

5. Harvesting

Beans are usually ready for harvest 60 – 80 days after planting. Very important, it is best to harvest during a dry weather and avoid harvesting during a wet weather. To harvest, gently pull the beans from the vines or snap it off the vine ends.

There are 2 factors that influences harvesting beans. They are:

  • type of growth
  • the stage of growth.

For the stage of growth, you can harvest the beans at the snap, shell or dry stages.The snap beans are harvested when the seeds are still quite still immature. A problem with harvesting at the snap stage is that this type of beans doesn’t develop the proper flavor and texture. Normally the easiest way to ascertain the suitability of the beans for harvest in this stage is by harvesting one or two pods to determine the quality before going into proper full scale harvest. The best indicator of snap beans is the diameter of their pods. The ideal diameter is between 1/4 – 1/8 “. You can choose to allow your snap beans to develop into dry beans before you harvest.

The shell beans are harvested at a later time compared to the snap beans. Once the enclosed seeds become quite obvious, the beans can be harvested. The beans can be eaten fresh or dried.

The dry beans are harvested when the seeds have reached complete maturity.. The dry beans should be grown in plenty of space and ventilation. If during the harvest period, there’s a spell of rain, you can remove the plants from the ground and hang it upside down to allow drying to continue.

After that, the harvest goes to the process of threshing to remove the extraneous pod materials. It is important to avoid harvest early so you can get the right flavor and texture. On the other hand, if you harvest late, it becomes tough.

Problems And Challenges of Beans Farming In Nigeria

1. The beans seedlings may fail to emerge.

2. Problems of low fertility.

3. Leaf diseases may affect the beans leaf.

4. The diseases of the roots and stem may occur.

5. Pests like groundnut aphid, bean stem maggot, bug & beetle may damage the plant.

Possible Solutions:

1. Ensure pest and disease control

2. There should be effective weed control

3. Plant resistant cultivars or disease free seed (You should plant early in order to avoid aphid penetration).

Benefits Of Beans

Here are the benefits beans can offer:

1. Beans is a source of protein.

2. Beans has several vital nutrients like the folate. It is good for pregnant women, as it prevent neural tube defects in fetus.

3. According to some research “It stated that beans can lower cholesterol”.

4. Beans reduces the risk of cancer.

5. Beans can help in losing weight.

Reasons To Invest In Beans Farming In Nigeria

1. Beans are very high in demand, both at markets, homes, schools, eateries, restaurants, hotels etc.

2. Unlike most of the crops, beans grows very fast.

3. Beans has lots of health benefits to individuals.

4. Beans has an economic importance of providing proteins to the consumers.

Here are the list of top 5 beans producing states in Nigeria:

1. Zamfara

2. Sokoto

3. Kano

4. Borno

5. Gombe

How Lucrative Is Beans Farming In Nigeria?

Beans farming in Nigeria is very lucrative and the market demand is high. It is widely consumed by Nigerians. If you can take much of your time and visit restaurants, hotels and eateries, you will notice that beans is among the top 3 demanded food, it usually comes in mixture of beans & rice, beans & yam, beans & potato, beans and plantain.

Conclusion:

Agriculture has major roles to play in the country and this has made beans farming in Nigeria worth any investment. If you have any intention of starting a beans farming, you should go ahead and start it as it is very profitable. The best way to avert hunger is by farming.

Nigerians are blessed with a good vegetation, infoGuide encourages everyone to start with a little garden, build your interest in agriculture, invest in it and enjoy high returns on your investment.

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